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Terms Related to the Nervous System
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Terms Related to the Nervous System

Amblyopia—loss of some vision especially in one eye without apparent change in the eye structures; also called lazy eye

Analgesia—insensitivity to pain without loss of consciousness

Anesthesia—loss of sensation and usually of consciousness without loss of vital body functions; produced by the administration of drugs that block the passage of pain impulses along nerve pathways to the brain

Block anesthesia—local anesthesia

Caudal anesthesia—loss of pain sensation below the navel produced by injection of an anesthetic into a portion of the vertebral canal  

Epidural anesthesia—anesthesia produced by injection of a local anesthetic  into the peridural space of the spinal cord

General anesthesia—anesthesia affecting the entire body and accompanied by loss of consciousness

Ataxia—an inability to coordinate voluntary muscular movements

Audiometry—the testing and measurement of hearing ability; includes sound intensity, pitch, and tone

Blepharitis—inflammation of the eyelids

Causalgia—a constant usually burning pain resulting from injury to a peripheral nerve

Conjunctivitis—inflammation of the conjunctiva (the mucous membrane lining the inner surface of the eyelid) 

Coma—state of complete unconsciousness caused by disease, injury, or poison

Cordotomy—surgical division of part of the spinal cord for relief of severe pain

Craniotomy—surgical opening of the skull

Electroencelphalogram (EEG)—a recording of the brain’s electrical activity

Encephalitis—inflammation of the brain and meninges

Epilepsy—any of various disorders characterized by abnormal electrical discharges in the brain; typically includes sudden brief episodes of unconsciousness, involuntary movements, or convulsions

Glaucoma—a disease of the eye characterized by increased pressure within the eyeball that can result in damage to the retina and loss of vision

Hemiplegia—paralysis on one side of the body

Iridectomy—removal of part of the iris

Iritis—inflammation of the iris of the eye

Keratitis—inflammation of the cornea of the eye marked by burning, blurring of  vision, and sensitiveness to light

Laminectomy—surgical removal of the posterior (back) arch of a vertebra

Monoplegia—paralysis affecting a single limb, body part, or group of muscles

Neuralgia—acute pain radiating along one or more nerves usually without changes in nerve structure

Neuritis—an inflammatory or degenerative lesion of a nerve marked by pain, sensory impairment, and lost reflexes

Paraplegia—paralysis of the lower half of the body  usually due to disease of or injury to the spinal cord

Quadriplegia—paralysis of all four limbs

Tinnitus—sensation of noise that is caused by a bodily condition such as a disturbance of the auditory nerve or wax in the ear 

Vertigo—a condition produced by various disorders of the inner ear in which the individual becomes dizzy

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